Air pollution is causing about 1.1 million people to die prematurely each year in India mainly because of particulate matter which increases cardiac diseases.
Reasons behind India’s failure to curb the issue:
1. Weak Regulations: PIL is the main tool in the hands of people to demand environment conservation but this tool lacks enforcement ability.
2. Population density and Urbanization: This imposes immense pressure upon public transport leading to excessive use of private vehicles>> congestion on road> more pollution.
3. Economic consequences: Developing nations like India are often indisposed to invest legally, financially and politically in measures that can safeguard the environment because they fear those could halt economic progress.USA, European countries can afford economic losses.
4. These developed countries are using capital intensive technologies to reduce pollution and emission of GHGs where India can’t afford to invest much on pollution when India has other pressing issues such as poverty, health issues, need to develop fast to reap demographic dividend.
5. China is making massive hydroelectric dams such as three gorges dams, largest ever dam on Brahmaputra river, etc, which provide pollution free electricity whereas India continues to depend on thermal energy for its energy demand at a great extent.
6.the manufacturing and industrial growth is coming down in these developed countries including China whereas, it’s comparatively increasing in India.
Through following measures India reduce air pollution:
1. Effective urban planning:Incorporate building plans(less pollution emiting) and city plans that are focused towards reducing congestion mainly through Smart city Mission, Amrut Mission. The recent decision to ban vehicles in Connaught place Delhi.
2. Enforcement of court orders immediately.
3. Strong legislation: Blanket ban on old vehicles which contributes significantly to pollution as directed by courts. Directive principle under article 48A directs government to take measures.
4. Improve health facilities at affordable prices: This was done by countries like USA so as to cure the issue. Provide masks to traffic police as they are most affected by it.
Measures taken by Indian government:
1. Moving to Bharat Stage to VI from IV.
2. Provision of CAMPA, Ujjwala scheme ,increased coal cess, accountability measures from ministry to monitor emission of hazardous gases from industry.
1.Promote use of electric vehicles
2.Promote use of solar energy, because so many industrial sites and households uses generators which run on petrol or diesel
3. Investment in R&D for efficient batteries as storage is one of the major problem in solar technologies
4. Investment in petrol engines and diesel engine development programe so that we can produce efficient engine which expel only less amount of carbon and other toxic elements. partial combustion is one of the reason for excess carbon from vehicles
5.Promote vehicles on bio diesel
6.Promote use of public transport, as most of the people uses cars even if there is only one person in it.
curb the passage of heavy vehicles or SUVs into the cities during peak time
7.Promote plantation of trees which are highly productive and produces more oxygen compared to other trees
8.Reduce the usage of diesel vehicles and promote eco friendly vehicles. vehicles run on hydrogen will be the future vehicle
10.Awareness programmes, halt polluting industries on the periphery of cities
Air pollution control is not task of government alone citizens are equally responsible for reducing pollution by complying government directives and it is their fundamental duty also.