Nationalism, a multidimensional concept oriented towards gaining and maintaining self governance and full sovereignty over a territory of historical significance to the group (such as its homeland). therefore seeks to preserve the nation’s culture and often involves a sense of pride in the nation’s achievements.
Nationalism on the other hand accords a lot of importance to a homogenous \setup where love for one’s state should come before everything else. It gives lesser importance to ideals of an individual if his stand is not in sync with the ideals of national interest. Therefore, nationalism can be both positive (Eg: Indian freedom struggle) or negative. Freedom struggle and can be negative if its excessiveness hurts its land’s own people :- genocide by hiter in Germany.
On another hand pluralism as a philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity to permit peaceful co-existence of different cultures/ethnicities with in a land. Thus against the nationalism which focuses more on “single identity” as nation.
Pluralism built upon a tolerance whereas nationalism may turned reactionary if there is minority-majority faction resides.Pluralism as a theory was advocated by scholars like Laski and Mc Iver, the principle idea behind pluralism is that state is no more than an association. Pluralists believe that man is multi dimensional and not all of his needs can be fulfilled by the state therefore state is only a key stone of social architecture which has been propagated by man. Hence pluralists celebrate diversity and feel that the authority of state should be limited.
Nationalism on the other hand accords a lot of importance to a homogenous setup where love for one’s state should come before everything else. It gives lesser importance to ideals of an individual if his stand is not in sync with the ideals of national interest. Therefore, nationalism can be both positive (Eg: Indian freedom struggle) or negative (Eg: Excessive nationalism – Nazi Germnay).
Tagore’s critique of nationalism
Tagore was opposed to the ideals of nationalism because he deemed nationalism as a recurrent threat to humanity because of its propensity for the material. He felt that it trampled over human spirit and upset man’s moral balance. However, he did support national spirit.
Tagore’s criticism is very relevant today due to the new paradigm of emerging hyper nationalism and protectionism. This can be seen in the recent Brexit, US protests against Trump and other right wing movements which are against the broader ideals of humanity and brotherhood.